Indian ship on lead coin of Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi. Relief panel of a ship at Borobudur8th—9th century.
For instance, Warwick Ball contends that the maritime spice trade with India and Arabia was far more consequential for the economy of the Roman Empire than the silk trade with Chinawhich at sea was conducted mostly through India and on land was handled by numerous intermediaries such as the Sogdians.
Significantly, these mines were not very far from the lapis lazuli and spinel "Balas Ruby" mines in Badakhshanand, although separated by the formidable Pamir Mountainsroutes across them were apparently in use from very early times.
This style is particularly reflected in the rectangular belt plaques made of gold and bronze, with other versions in jade and steatite. Scythians accompanied the Assyrian Esarhaddon on his invasion of Egyptand their distinctive triangular arrowheads have been found as far south as Aswan.
These nomadic peoples were dependent upon neighbouring settled populations for a number of important technologies, and in addition to raiding vulnerable settlements for these commodities, they also encouraged long-distance merchants as a source of income through the enforced payment of tariffs.
Sogdians played a major role in facilitating trade between China and Central Asia along the Silk Roads as late as the 10th century, their language serving as a lingua franca for Asian trade as far back as the 4th century.
By the time of Herodotus c. By having fresh horses and riders ready at each relay, royal couriers could carry messages and traverse the length of the road in nine days, while normal Trade route systems mediterranean and indian ocean took about three months.
The next major step in the development of the Silk Road was the expansion of the Greek empire of Alexander the Great into Central Asia. They continued to expand eastward, especially during the reign of Euthydemus — BCEwho extended his control beyond Alexandria Eschate to Sogdiana.
There are indications that he may have led expeditions as far as Kashgar in Chinese Turkestanleading to the first known contacts between China and the West around BCE. The Greek historian Strabo writes, "they extended their empire even as far as the Seres China and the Phryni.
Chinese exploration of Central Asia Main articles: This extension came around BCE, with the embassies of the Han dynasty to Central Asia following the reports of the ambassador Zhang Qian  who was originally sent to obtain an alliance with the Yuezhi against the Xiongnu.
Zhang Qian visited directly the kingdom of Dayuan in Ferghanathe territories of the Yuezhi in Transoxianathe Bactrian country of Daxia with its remnants of Greco-Bactrian rule, and Kangju.
He also made reports on neighbouring countries that he did not visit, such as Anxi ParthiaTiaozhi MesopotamiaShendu Pakistan and the Wusun. Ferghana Dayuan "Great Ionians " and the possessions of Bactria Ta-Hsia and Parthian Empire Anxi are large countries, full of rare things, with a population living in fixed abodes and given to occupations somewhat identical with those of the Chinese people, but with weak armies, and placing great value on the rich produce of China" Hou Hanshu, Later Han History.
Others  say that Emperor Wu was mainly interested in fighting the Xiongnu and that major trade began only after the Chinese pacified the Hexi Corridor.
The Silk Roads' origin lay in the hands of the Chinese. The soil in China lacked Selenium, a deficiency which contributed to muscular weakness and reduced growth in horses. Even after the construction of the Great Wall, nomads gathered at the gates of the wall to exchange. Soldiers sent to guard the wall were often paid in silk which they traded with the nomads.
The Chinese subsequently sent numerous embassies, around ten every year, to these countries and as far as Seleucid Syria. As a rule, rather more than ten such missions went forward in the course of a year, and at the least five or six.
Europe and Asia were reconnected through a series of trade routes known as the Silk Roads, which included several maritime routes that connected the Mediterranean and Red Seas to the Indian Ocean. Major Trades Routes longer than in the Mediterranean, traders in the Indian Ocean system seldom retained political ties to their homelands, What little we know about trade in the Indian Ocean system before Islam . The Frankincense Route. The Sultanate of Oman in the Persian Gulf presents an extraordinary kaleidoscope of natural and man-made beauty: deserts, mountains and beaches on the one hand; striking architecture, vivid textiles, intricate woodwork, jewellery and pottery on the other.
These connections marked the beginning of the Silk Road trade network that extended to the Roman Empire. It has been suggested that the Chinese crossbow was transmitted to the Roman world on such occasions, although the Greek gastraphetes provides an alternative origin.
Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N. Dupuy suggest that in 36 BCE, a "Han expedition into central Asia, west of Jaxartes River, apparently encountered and defeated a contingent of Roman legionaries.
The Romans may have been part of Antony 's army invading Parthia. Sogdiana modern Bukharaeast of the Oxus River, on the Polytimetus River, was apparently the most easterly penetration ever made by Roman forces in Asia. The margin of Chinese victory appears to have been their crossbows, whose bolts and darts seem easily to have penetrated Roman shields and armour.
Even the rest of the nations of the world which were not subject to the imperial sway were sensible of its grandeur, and looked with reverence to the Roman people, the great conqueror of nations. Thus even Scythians and Sarmatians sent envoys to seek the friendship of Rome.
Nay, the Seres came likewise, and the Indians who dwelt beneath the vertical sun, bringing presents of precious stones and pearls and elephants, but thinking all of less moment than the vastness of the journey which they had undertaken, and which they said had occupied four years.
In truth it needed but to look at their complexion to see that they were people of another world than ours. Han general Ban Chao led an army of 70, mounted infantry and light cavalry troops in the 1st century CE to secure the trade routes, reaching far west to the Tarim basin.
Ban Chao expanded his conquests across the Pamirs to the shores of the Caspian Sea and the borders of Parthia.
The Silk Roads were a "complex network of trade routes" that gave people the chance to exchange goods and culture. It extended, via ports on the coasts of India and Sri Lankaall the way to Roman -controlled ports in Roman Egypt and the Nabataean territories on the northeastern coast of the Red Sea.The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and mtb15.com was central to cultural interaction between the regions for many centuries.
The Silk Road refers to both the terrestrial and the maritime routes connecting East Asia and Southeast Asia with East Africa, West Asia and Southern Europe.. The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried.
Trade route systems, Mediterranean and Indian Ocean Essay Sample. There was much diversity between Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean trade. For example, in the Mediterranean, sailors used square sails and long banks oars to maneuver among the sea’s many islands.
The Amber Road was a European trade route associated with the trade and transport of amber. Maritime republics' Mediterranean trade.
Genoese (red) and Venetian (green mainly descendants of Arab sailors from Yemen and Oman – dominated maritime routes throughout the Indian Ocean. Transcript of compare and contrast trade routes The Silk Road Indian Ocean Trade Mediterranean Sea Trade The Silk Road expanded miles across China, Central Asia, northern India, and the Parthian and Roman Empire.
Conquerors: How Portugal Forged the First Global Empire [Roger Crowley] on mtb15.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In Conquerors, New York Times bestselling author Roger Crowley gives us the epic story of the emergence of Portugal.
Indian Ocean Trade has been a key factor in East–West exchanges throughout history. Long distance trade in dhows and sailboats made it a dynamic zone of interaction between peoples, cultures, and civilizations stretching from Java in the East to Zanzibar and Mombasa in the West.