It is putting a very high value on one's conjectures, to have a man roasted alive because of them Montaigne, Essais From the earliest days philosophers were critical of Christianity. They found no substantial arguments, and pointed out a number of weaknesses in Christian reasoning.
The works of Hippocrates provided much of the basis for the subsequent development of medical science. Though Hippocrates served as the central figure in ancient Greek medicine, other practitioners both paved the way for and elaborated upon his accomplishments.
Greek Medicine Before Hippocrates Ancient Greeks originally saw illness as symptomatic of spiritual problems.
Greeks considered illness a divine punishment, and recovery a blessing. Prayer to certain gods, such as Asclepius and Apollo, formed the basis of treatment.
Greek physicians before Hippocrates did make some lasting contributions, however. Pythagoras, born around BC, established a connection between diet and health, and advocated a vegetarian diet.
Alcmaeon, who lived in the 5th century BC, discovered the optic nerve. The most renowned physician before Hippocrates, Demokedes of Croton, had a public clinic in Athens. His accomplishments included the successful treatment of sprained ankles and the removal of a tumors.
The Writings of Hippocrates Born around BC, Hippocrates confounds historians, as little information remains about his life. In fact, though 76 works bear attribution to Hippocrates, many of them were certainly the work of later writers.
Despite this, Hippocrates has renown as the father of medicine thanks to important foundational practices contained in the writings. Hippocrates preached an ethical basis for medical practice and receives credit for the Hippocratic Oath.
Hippocrates also created the notion of medical prognosis. Hippocrates held that four bodily fluids, called the humors, formed the basis of health or illness Outside factors, such as diet or the weather, could influence humors in a positive or negative way.
The humor theory, though fundamentally flawed, established the notion of physical causes for illness, and provided a foundation for the practice of diagnosis and treatment.
For example, if a patient felt lethargic, a Hippocratic doctor would diagnose an overabundance of phlegm, and then prescribe citrus as a treatment. The Contributions of Aristotle Aristotle based his medical theory not only upon the writings of Hippocrates, but upon his own skills of deduction, which led to some key misunderstandings.
From this basic understanding, Aristotle applied scientific practices, such as critical observation and logic, in his development of treatments.
Aristotle also advocated the practice of dissection to understand physical processes.By the second half of the ninth century, Islamic mathematicians were already making contributions to the most sophisticated parts of Greek geometry.
Islamic mathematics reached its apogee in the Eastern part of the Islamic world between the tenth and twelfth centuries.
Most mathematical works were written in Arabic, others in Persian. The most important areas of Greek achievement were math and science. They achieved all kinds of things in the areas of psychology, astronomy, geometry, biology, physics, and .
IBN AL-BAITAR (DIED A.D.) Abu Muhammad Abdallah Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Baitar Dhiya al-Din al-Malaqi was one of the greatest scientists of Muslim Spain and was the greatest botanist and pharmacist of the Middle Ages.
Apr 22, · Whether it be astrology, mathematics, biology, engineering, medicine or linguistics, nearly all of the information we take for granted today was first discovered by the ancient Greeks. As if all of this wasn't enough, when it comes to the realm of art–including literature, music, architecture, design and the performing arts–the Greeks Reviews: Science, Medicine, Technology in Ancient India.
Science and technology in ancient and medieval India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical science and surgery, fine arts, mechanical and production technology, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding and navigation, sports and games.
The beginning of the Dark Ages came after St. Augustine’s death. During the Dark Ages, scholars of different countries started to gather all the works done by the Roman and Greek philosophers (e.g.
Aristotle) by translating them and acquired the works to make great contributions in medicine, science and mathematics.